Category: World History & Current Affair

99 Fun Facts about Dogs

99 Fun Facts about Dogs

 

  • All dogs can be traced back 40 million years ago to a weasel-like animal called the Miacis which dwelled in trees and dens. The Miacis later evolved into the Tomarctus, a direct forbear of the genus Canis, which includes the wolf and jackal as well as the dog.
  • Small quantities of grapes and raisins can cause renal failure in dogs. Chocolate, macadamia nuts, cooked onions, or anything with caffeine can also be harmful.
  • Apple and pear seeds contain arsenic, which may be deadly to dogs.
  • Dogs have sweat glands in between their paws.
  • In 2003, Dr. Roger Mugford invented the “wagometer,” a device that claims to interpret a dog’s exact mood by measuring the wag of its tail.

 

The ancient Egyptian word for dog was “iwiw,” which referred to the dog’s bark

 

  • Ancient Egyptians revered their dogs. When a pet dog would die, the owners shaved off their eyebrows, smeared mud in their hair, and mourned aloud for days.
  • Dogs have three eyelids. The third lid, called a nictitating membrane or “haw,” keeps the eye lubricated and protected.
  • A dog’s shoulder blades are unattached to the rest of the skeleton to allow greater flexibility for running.
  • Puppies are sometimes rejected by their mother if they are born by cesarean and cleaned up before being given back to her.
  • The phrase “raining cats and dogs” originated in seventeenth-century England. During heavy rainstorms, many homeless animals would drown and float down the streets, giving the appearance that it had actually rained cats and dogs.
  • During the Middle Ages, Great Danes and Mastiffs were sometimes suited with armor and spiked collars to enter a battle or to defend supply caravans.
  • Pekingese and Japanese Chins were so important in the ancient Far East that they had their own servants and were carried around trade routes as gifts for kings and emperors. Pekingese were even worshiped in the temples of China for centuries.

 

The word “werewolf” derives from Old English compound “were” (meaning “man”) and “wulf” (meaning “wolf”)

 

  • After the fall of Rome, human survival often became more important than breeding and training dogs. Legends of werewolves emerged during this time as abandoned dogs traveling in packs commonly roamed streets and terrified villagers.
  • The most dogs ever owned by one person were 5,000 Mastiffs owned by Kublai Khan.
  • The American Kennel Club, the most influential dog club in the United States, was founded in 1884.
  • The most popular male dog names are Max and Jake. The most popular female dog names are Maggie and Molly.
  • Weird dog laws include allowing police offers in Palding, Ohio, to bite a dog to quiet it. In Ventura County, California, cats and dogs are not allowed to have sex without a permit.
  • The first dog chapel was established in 2001. It was built in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, by Stephan Huneck, a children’s book author whose five dogs helped him recuperate from a serious illness.
  • Those born under the sign of the dog in Chinese astrology are considered to be loyal and discreet, though slightly temperamental.
  • In Iran, it is against the law to own a dog as a pet. However, if an owner can prove the dog is a guard or hunting dog, this restriction doesn’t apply. Muslim reticence concerning dogs is perhaps due to the fact that rabies has always been endemic in the Middle East.
  • The Mayans and Aztecs symbolized every tenth day with the dog, and those born under this sign were believed to have outstanding leadership skills.
  • The shape of a dog’s face suggests how long it will live. Dogs with sharp, pointed faces that look more like wolves typically live longer. Dogs with very flat faces, such as bulldogs, often have shorter lives.

 

Dogs with flatter faces typically don’t live as long as dogs with longer faces

 

  • The ancient Mbaya Indians of the Gran Chaco in South America believed that humans originally lived underground until dogs dug them up.
  • French poodles did not originate in France but in Germany (“poodle” comes from the German pudel or pudelhund, meaning “splashing dog”). Some scholars speculate the poodle’s puffs of hair evolved when hunters shaved the poodle for more efficient swimming, while leaving the pom-poms around the major joints to keep them warm.
  • The name of the dog on the Cracker Jacks box is Bingo. The Taco Bell Chihuahua is a rescued dog named Gidget.
  • The first dogs were self-domesticated wolves which, at least 12,000 years ago, became attracted to the first sites of permanent human habitation.
  • Dachshunds were bred to fight badgers in their dens.

 

Dogs are more than just our best friends

 

  • Plato once said that “a dog has the soul of a philosopher.”
  • Laika, a Russian stray, was the first living mammal to orbit the Earth, in the Soviet Sputnik spacecraft in 1957. Though she died in space, her daughter Pushnika had four puppies with President John F. Kennedy’s terrier, Charlie.
  • Dalmatians are completely white at birth.
  • The term “dog days of summer” was coined by the ancient Greeks and Romans to describe the hottest days of summer that coincided with the rising of the Dog Star, Sirius.
  • Alexander the Great is said to have founded and named a city Peritas, in memory of his dog.
  • In ancient Greece, kennels of dogs were kept at the sanctuary of Asclepius at Epidaurus. Dogs were frequently sacrificed there because they were plentiful, inexpensive, and easy to control. During the July 25 celebration of the kunophontis (“the massacre of dogs”), dog sacrifices were performed to appease the ancestors of Apollo’s son, Linos, who was devoured by dogs.
  • Dog trainers in ancient China were held in high esteem. A great deal of dog domestication also took place in China, especially dwarfing and miniaturization.
  • The ancient religion Zoroastrianism includes in its religious text titled the Zend Avesta a section devoted to the care and breeding of dogs.
  • The earliest European images of dogs are found in cave paintings dating back 12,000 years ago in Spain.
  • The dog was frequently depicted in Greek art, including Cerberus, the three-headed hound guarding the entrance to the underworld, and the hunting dogs which accompanied the virgin goddess of the chase, Diana.
  • During the Renaissance, detailed portraits of the dog as a symbol of fidelity and loyalty appeared in mythological, allegorical, and religious art throughout Europe, including works by Leonardo da Vinci, Diego Velázquez, Jan van Eyck, and Albrecht Durer.

 

The time Ozzy wrestled a coyote(Charley Gallay / Getty Images)

 

  • Rock star Ozzy Osborne saved his wife Sharon’s Pomeranian from a coyote by tackling and wresting the coyote until it released the dog.
  • A puppy is born blind, deaf, and toothless.
  • The Basenji is the world’s only barkless dog.
  • A dog most likely interprets a smiling person as baring their teeth, which is an act of aggression.
  • The origin of amputating a dog’s tail may go back to the Roman writer Lucius Columella’s (A.D. 4-70) assertion that tail docking prevented rabies.
  • One of Shakespeare’s most mischievous characters is Crab, the dog belonging to Launce in the Two Gentlemen of Verona. The word “watchdog” is first found in The Tempest.
  • President Franklin Roosevelt created a minor international incident when he claimed he sent a destroyer to the Aleutian Islands just to pick up his Scottish Terrier, Fala, who had been left behind.
  • Within hours of the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center, specially trained dogs were on the scene, including German Shepherds, Labs, and even a few little Dachshunds.
  • It costs approximately $10,000 to train a federally certified search and rescue dog.
  • The smallest dog on record was a matchbox-size Yorkshire Terrier. It was 2.5″ tall at the shoulder, 3.5″ from nose tip to tail, and weighed only 4 ounces.
  • Hollywood’s first and arguably best canine superstar was Rin Tin Tin, a five-day-old German Shepherd found wounded in battle in WWI France and adopted by an American soldier, Lee Duncan. He would sign his own contracts with his paw print.

 

In the Middle Ages, the leisured class often kept dogs as pets, while the rest of the population mainly used them for protection and herding

 

  • During the Middle Ages, mixed breeds of peasants’ dogs were required to wear blocks around their necks to keep them from breeding with noble hunting dogs. Purebred dogs were very expensive and hunting became the province of the rich.
  • At the end of WWI, the German government trained the first guide dogs for war-blinded soldiers.
  • A dog can locate the source of a sound in 1/600 of a second and can hear sounds four times farther away than a human can.
  • Touch is the first sense the dog develops. The entire body, including the paws, is covered with touch-sensitive nerve endings.
  • Eighteen muscles or more can move a dog’s ear.
  • The names of 77 ancient Egyptian dogs have been recorded. The names refer to color and character, such as Blackie, Ebony, Good Herdsman, Reliable, and Brave One.
  • In Egypt, a person bitten by a rabid dog was encouraged to eat the roasted liver of a dog infected with rabies to avoid contracting the disease. The tooth of a dog infected with rabies would also be put in a band tied to the arm of the person bitten. The menstrual blood of a female dog was used for hair removal, while dog genitals were used for preventing the whitening of hair.
  • In early Christian tradition, Saint Christopher, the patron saint of travelers, is sometimes depicted with a dog’s head.
  • The oldest known dog bones were found in Asia and date as far back as 10,000 B.C. The first identifiable dog breed appeared about 9000 B.C. and was probably a type of Greyhound dog used for hunting.
  • There are an estimated 400 million dogs in the world.
  • The U.S. has the highest dog population in the world. France has the second highest.

 

Toto reportedly earned $125 per week of filming, but each Munchkin actor earned just $50

 

  • Scholars have argued over the metaphysical interpretation of Dorothy’s pooch, Toto, in the Wizard of Oz. One theory postulates that Toto represents Anubis, the dog-headed Egyptian god of death, because Toto consistently keeps Dorothy from safely returning home.
  • Dog nose prints are as unique as human finger prints and can be used to identify them.
  • Bloodhound dogs have a keen sense of smell and have been used since the Middle Ages to track criminals.
  • It is much easier for dogs to learn spoken commands if they are given in conjunction with hand signals or gestures.
  • Dogs in a pack are more likely to chase and hunt than a single dog on its own. Two dogs are enough to form a pack.
  • Dogs can see in color, though they most likely see colors similar to a color-blind human. They can see better when the light is low.
  • Dogs have lived with humans for over 14,000 years. Cats have lived with people for only 7,000 years.
  • Zorba, an English mastiff, is the biggest dog ever recorded. He weighed 343 pounds and measured 8’ 3″ from his nose to his tail.
  • The average dog can run about 19 mph. Greyhounds are the fastest dogs on Earth and can run at speeds of 45 mph.
  • One female dog and her female children could produce 4,372 puppies in seven years.
  • The most popular dog breed in Canada, U.S., and Great Britain is the Labrador retriever.
  • Petting dogs is proven to lower blood pressure of dog owners.

 

Sometimes dogs are just nicer to be with than people

 

  • Greyhounds appear to be the most ancient dog breed. “Greyhound” comes from a mistake in translating the early German name Greishund, which means “old (or ancient) dog,” not from the color gray.
  • The oldest dog on record was an Australian cattle dog named Bluey who lived 29 years and 5 months. In human years, that is more than 160 years old.
  • Most experts believe humans domesticated dogs before donkeys, horses, sheep, goats, cattle, cats, or chickens.
  • A person standing still 300 yards away is almost invisible to a dog. But a dog can easily identify its owner standing a mile away if the owner is waving his arms.
  • Dogs with big, square heads and large ears (like the Saint Bernard) are the best at hearing subsonic sounds.

 

A sticky issue

 

  • In Croatia, scientists discovered that lampposts were falling down because a chemical in the urine of male dogs was rotting the metal.
  • Dogs can smell about 1,000 times better than humans. While humans have 5 million smell-detecting cells, dogs have more than 220 million. The part of the brain that interprets smell is also four times larger in dogs than in humans.
  • Some dogs can smell dead bodies under water, where termites are hiding, and natural gas buried under 40 feet of dirt. They can even detect cancer that is too small to be detected by a doctor and can find lung cancer by sniffing a person’s breath.
  • Dogs have a wet nose to collect more of the tiny droplets of smelling chemicals in the air.
  • Dogs like sweets a lot more than cats do. While cats have around only 473 taste buds, dogs have about 1,700 taste buds. Humans have approximately 9,000.
  • Different smells in the a dog’s urine can tell other dogs whether the dog leaving the message is female or male, old or young, sick or healthy, happy or angry.
  • Male dogs will raise their legs while urinating to aim higher on a tree or lamppost because they want to leave a message that they are tall and intimidating. Some wild dogs in Africa try to run up tree trunks while they are urinating to appear to be very large.
  • Countess Karlotta Libenstein of Germany left approximately $106 million to her Alsatin, Gunther III, when she died in 1992.
  • A lost Dachshund was found swallowed whole in the stomach of a giant catfish in Berlin on July 2003.

 

Almost 1 in 5 people bitten by dogs require medical attention

 

  • A person should never kick a dog facing him or her. Some dogs can bite 10 times before a human can respond.
  • In Australia, a man who was arrested for drug possession argued his civil rights were violated when the drug-sniffing dog nuzzled his crotch. While the judge dismissed the charges, they were later reinstated when a prosecutor pointed out that in the animal kingdom, crotch nuzzling was a friendly gesture.
  • The Beagle came into prominence in the 1300s and 1400s during the days of King Henry VII of England. Elizabeth I was fond of Pocket Beagles, which were only 9″ high.
  • The best dog to reportedly attract a date is the Golden Retriever. The worst is the Pit Bull.
  • The Akita is one of the most challenging dogs to own. Some insurance companies have even characterized it as the #1 “bad dog” and may even raise an Akita owner’s homeowner insurance costs.
  • The Beagle and Collie are the nosiest dogs, while the Akbash Dog and the Basenji are the quietest.
  • One survey reports that 33% of dog owners admit they talk to their dogs on the phone or leave messages on answering machines while they are away.
  • Thirty percent of all Dalmatians are deaf in one or both ears. Because bulldogs have extremely short muzzles, many spend their lives fighting suffocation. Because Chihuahuas have such small skulls, the flow of spinal fluid can be restricted, causing hydrocephalus, a swelling of the brain.

 

Puppies are like having another child in the house

 

  • Dogs are about as smart as a two- or three-year-old child. This means they can understand about 150-200 words, including signals and hand movements with the same meaning as words.
  • The grief suffered after a pet dog dies can be the same as that experienced after the death of a person.
  • There are almost 5 million dog bites per year; children are the main victims. Dog bites cause losses of over $1 billion a year.
  • The most intelligent dogs are reportedly the Border Collie and the Poodle, while the least intelligent dogs are the Afghan Hound and the Basenji.
  • One kind of Pekingese is referred to as a “sleeve” because it was bred to fit into a Chinese empress’ sleeves, which was how it was often carried around.

Nationgistsite..!

 

Advertisements
US PRESIDENTS, TENURE AND POLITICAL PARTIES

US PRESIDENTS, TENURE AND POLITICAL PARTIES

                                           Presidents of the United States
No. Name Term Vice-President Party Congress House
Majority
Senate
Majority
1
George Washington 1789-1797 John Adams None 1st
2nd
3rd
4th
N/A N/A
2
John Adams 1797-1801 Thomas Jefferson Federalist 5th
6th
N/A
Fed
N/A
Fed
3
Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809 Aaron Burr (1801-05)
George Clinton (1805-09)
Democratic-
Republican
7th
8th
9th
10th
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
4
James Madison 1809-1817 George Clinton (1809-12)(a)
Elbridge Gerry (1813-14)(a)
Democratic-
Republican
11th
12th
13th
14th
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
5
James Monroe 1817-1825 Daniel D. Tompkins Democratic-
Republican
15th
16th
17th
18th
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
Dem-Rep
6
John Quincy Adams 1825-1829 John C. Calhoun National-
Republican
19th
20th
Nat-Rep
Dem
Nat-Rep
Dem
7
Andrew Jackson 1829-1837 John C. Calhoun (1829-32)(b)
Martin Van Buren (1833-37)
Democrat 21st
22nd
23rd
24th
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
8
Martin Van Buren 1837-1841 Richard M. Johnson Democrat 25th
26th
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
9
William H. Harrison 1841 (a) John Tyler Whig
10
John Tyler 1841-1845 vacant Whig 27th
28th
Whig
Dem
Whig
Dem
11
James K. Polk 1845-1849 George M. Dallas Democrat 29th
30th
Dem
Whig
Dem
Dem
12
Zachary Taylor 1849-1850 (a) Millard Fillmore Whig 31st Dem Dem
13
Millard Fillmore 1850-1853 vacant Whig 32nd Dem Dem
14
Franklin Pierce 1853-1857 William R.D. King Democrat 33rd
34th
Dem
Rep
Dem
Dem
15
James Buchanan 1857-1861 John C. Breckinridge Democrat 35th
36th
Dem
Rep
Dem
Dem
16
Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865 (a) Hannibal Hamlin (1861-65)
Andrew Johnson (1865)
Republican 37th
38th
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
17
Andrew Johnson 1865-1869 vacant Republican 39th
40th
Union
Rep
Union
Rep
18
Ulysses S. Grant 1869-1877 Schuyler Colfax (1869-73)
Henry Wilson (1873-75)(a)
Republican 41st
42nd
43rd
44th
Rep
Rep
Rep
Dem
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
19
Rutherford B. Hayes 1877-1881 William A. Wheeler Republican 45th
46th
Dem
Dem
Rep
Dem
20
James A. Garfield 1881 (a) Chester A. Arthur Republican 47th Rep Rep
21
Chester A. Arthur 1881-1885 vacant Republican 48th Dem Rep
22
Grover Cleveland 1885-1889 Thomas A. Hendricks (1885)(a) Democrat 49th
50th
Dem
Dem
Rep
Rep
23
Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893 Levi P. Morton Republican 51st
52nd
Rep
Dem
Rep
Rep
24
Grover Cleveland 1893-1897 Adlai E. Stevenson Democrat 53rd
54th
Dem
Rep
Dem
Rep
25
William McKinley 1897-1901 (a) Garret A. Hobart (1897-99)
Theodore Roosevelt (1901)
Republican 55th
56th
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
26
Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 vacant (1901-05)
Charles W. Fairbanks (1905-09)
Republican 57th
58th
59th
60th
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
27
William Howard Taft 1909-1913 James S. Sherman (1909-12)(a) Republican 61st
62nd
Rep
Dem
Rep
Rep
28
Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 Thomas R. Marshall Democrat 63rd
64th
65th
66th
Dem
Dem
Dem
Rep
Dem
Dem
Dem
Rep
29
Warren G. Harding 1921-1923 (a) Calvin Coolidge Republican 67th Rep Rep
30
Calvin Coolidge 1923-1929 vacant(1923-25)
Charles G. Dawes (1925-29)
Republican 68th
69th
70th
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
Rep
31
Herbert Hoover 1929-1933 Charles Curtis Republican 71st
72nd
Rep
Dem
Rep
Rep
32
Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945 (a) John N. Garner (1933-41)
Henry A. Wallace (1941-45)
Harry S. Truman (1945)
Democrat 73rd
74th
75th
76th
77th
78th
79th
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
33
Harry S Truman 1945-1953 vacant(1945-49)
Alben W. Barkley (1949-53)
Democrat 80th
81st
82nd
Rep
Dem
Dem
Rep
Dem
Dem
34
Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953-1961 Richard M. Nixon Republican 83rd
84th
85th
86th
Rep
Dem
Dem
Dem
Rep
Dem
Dem
Dem
35
John F. Kennedy 1961-1963 (a) Lyndon B. Johnson Democrat 87th
88th
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
36
Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1969 vacant (1963-65)
Hubert H. Humphrey (1965-69)
Democrat 89th
90th
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
37
Richard M. Nixon 1969-1974 (c) Spiro T. Agnew (1969-73)
Gerald R. Ford (1973-74)(d)
Republican 91st
92nd
93rd
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
38
Gerald R. Ford 1974-1977 Nelson A. Rockefeller (d) Republican 94th Dem Dem
39
James Earl Carter 1977-1981 Walter Mondale Democrat 95th
96th
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
40
Ronald Reagan 1981-1989 George Bush Republican 97th
98th
99th
100th
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
Rep
Rep
Rep
Dem
41
George H.W. Bush 1989-1993 J. Danforth Quayle Republican 101st
102nd
Dem
Dem
Dem
Dem
42
William J. Clinton 1993-2001 Albert Gore Jr. Democrat 103rd
104th
105th
106th
Dem
Rep
Rep
Rep
Dem
Rep
Rep
Rep
43
George W. Bush 2001-2009 Dick Cheney Republican 107th
108th
109th
110th
Rep
Rep
Rep
Dem
Dem
Rep
Rep
Dem
44
Barack H. Obama 2009- Joe Biden Democrat 111th
112th
113th
114th
Dem
Rep
Rep
Rep
Dem
Dem
Dem
Rep
45
Donald J. Trump 2017- Mike Pence Republican 115th Rep Rep

 

by Nationgistsite.

First Nigerian Republic

First Nigerian Republic

The First Republic was the republican government of Nigeria between 1963 and 1966 governed by the first republican constitution.

Founding (1963)

Although Nigeria gained independence from Britain on October 1st, 1960, the nation remained a Commonwealth Realm with Elizabeth II as titular head of state until the adoption of a new constitution in 1963 declaring the nation a republic.[1]

The name “Nigeria” is derived from the word “Niger” – the name of the river that constitutes the most remarkable geographical feature of the country. Nigeria is a country of 923,768 square kilometres, bound to the west by Benin, to the north by the Niger and Chad Republic, east by the Republic of Cameroon, and south by the Gulf of Guinea. The country gained independence from the British government on Oct, 1st 1960, and became a republic in 1963. The journey to independence started with some constitutional developments in Nigeria, these constitutional developments saw the country attaining self-rule in some quarters in 1957 and total independence on Oct. 1st 1960.

Presidents

Presidents during the Nigerian First Republic
President Term Party
Nnamdi Azikiwe October 1, 1963 – January 16, 1966 NCNC

Prime ministers[edit]

Prime Ministers during the Nigerian First Republic
Prime Minister Term Party
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa October 1, 1963 – January 16, 1966 NPC

Political parties

Politics

The country was split into three geopolitical regions—Western Region, Eastern Region and Northern Region—and its political parties took on the identities and ideologies of each region. The Northern People’s Party (NPC) represented the interests of the predominantly Hausa/Fulani Northern Region, the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons(NCNC)] (later renamed to “National Council of Nigerian Citizens”) represented the predominantly Igbo Eastern Region, and the Action Group (AG) dominated the Yoruba Western Region. The NPC took control of the federal parliament, and formed a coalition government with the NCNC. The National Independence Party (NIP) formed by Professor Eyo Ita became the second political party in the old Eastern Region. Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto, leader of the NPC, was poised to become the Prime Minister, but instead he chose to become the Premier of the Northern Region, and supported his deputy Tafawa Balewa’s candidacy for Prime Minister. This raised suspicions amongst the southern politicians, who resented the idea of a federal government controlled by a regional leader through his designated proxy. In the end, Tafawa Balewa of NPC was named Prime Minister and Head of Government, and Nnamdi Azikiwe of NCNC was named President.

At Nigeria’s independence, the Northern Region gained more seats in parliament than both Eastern and Western regions combined—this would cement Northern dominance in Nigerian politics for years to come. Resentment amongst southern politicians precipitated into political chaos in the country. Obafemi Awolowo, Premier of Western Region, was accused of attempting to overthrow the government. This followed a period of conflict between the AG regional government and the central government. In spite of the flimsiness of the evidence presented by the government’s prosecutors, he was convicted. With incarceration of Awolowo, Samuel Akintola took over as the Premier of Western Region. Because Akintola was an ally of Ahmadu Bello, the undisputed strong man of Nigeria, Akintola was criticized as being a tool of the North.[2] As premier of the West, Akintola presided over the most chaotic era in Western Region—one which earned it the nickname “the Wild-Wild West“. However, as late as Thursday, January 13, 1966, Balewa had announced that the federal government was not going to intervene in the West.[3] However, the very next day, Akintola, premier of the West met with his ally Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto, premier of the North and party boss of NPC party to which Balewa belonged.[4] At the same time a top-level security conference in Lagos was taking place which was attended by most of the country’s senior army officiers. All of this activity created rumors that the Balewa government would be forced to crack down on lawlessness in the West using military might.

Notable politicians

Chief S.A Ajayi OFR (Federal Minister of Interior, minister of Forestry(state)

The coup

The political unrest during the mid-1960s culminated into Nigeria’s first military coup d’état. On 15 January 1966, MajorChukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu and his fellow rebel soldiers (most of who were of southern extraction) and were led by Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna of the Nigerian Army, executed a bloody takeover of all institutions of government. Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa, was assassinated along with the premier of Northern Nigeria, strong-man Ahmadu Bello the Sardauna of Sokoto,[6] Samuel Akintola, premier of the West[7] and Festus Okotie-Eboh, the Finance Minister. [1]. It is not clear whether President Azikiwe’s life was spared because he was out of the country at the time, or whether he had been informed about the impending coup and was out of the country so that his life could be spared. Major-GeneralJohnson Aguiyi-Ironsi took control as the first Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria on January 16, 1966.[8]

Civil war and beyond: 1966–79

The republic would be torn by the secession of Biafra and the ensuing civil war from 1966–70. After Biafra was overrun and the nation re-unified, military rule continued for another nine years, implementing Nigerianization of foreign businesses. Eventually, elections were held in 1979 leading the way to the Nigerian Second Republic.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ https://www.dawodu.com/const63.pdf The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1963)
  2. Jump up^ John de St. Jorre, The Nigerian Civil War (Hodder and Stroughto Publishers: London, 1972, p. 30
  3. Jump up^ John de St. Jorre, The Nigerian Civil War (Hodder and Stoughton Publishers: London, 1972) p. 30.
  4. Jump up^ John de St. Jorre, The Nigerian Civil War, p. 30.
  5. Jump up^ John de St. Jorre, The Nigerian Civil War, p. 30.
  6. Jump up^ John de St. Jorre, The Nigerian Civil War p. 36.
  7. Jump up^ John de St. Jorre, The Nigerian Civil War, p. 35
  8. Jump up^ John de St. Jorre, The Nigerian Civil War, p. 39.

 

History of Nigeria

History of Nigeria

The history of Nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers living in the area as early as 11,000 BC. Numerous ancient African civilizations settled in the region that is today Nigeria. An example of one of the civilizations that settles in Nigeria is the Nri Kingdom. Islam reached Nigeria through the Hausa States during the 11th century. The Songhai Empire also occupied part of the region. Lagos was captured by British forces in 1851 and formally annexed in 1861. Nigeria became a British protectorate in 1901. Colonization lasted until 1960, when an independence movement succeeded in gaining Nigeria its independence.

Nigeria first became a republic in 1963, but succumbed to military rule in 1966 after a bloody coup d’état. A separatist movement later formed theRepublic of Biafra in 1967, leading to the three-year Nigerian Civil War. Nigeria became a republic once again after a new constitution was written in 1979. However, the republic was short-lived, when the military led by Major General Muhammadu Buhari seize again four years later. Buhari was overthrown and a new republic was founded in August 1993, but was dissolved once again by General Sani Abacha in November that same year. Abacha died in 1998 and a fourth republic was later established the following year, ending three decades of intermittent military rule.

Early history

Archaeological research, pioneered by Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels,[1] has shown that people were already living in south-western Nigeria (specifically Iwo-Eleru) as early as 11,000 BC[2] and perhaps earlier at Ugwuelle-Uturu (Okigwe) in south-eastern Nigeria, where microliths were used.[3]

The earliest known example of a fossil human skeleton found anywhere in West Africa, which is 13,000 years old, was found at Iwo-Eleru in western Nigeria and attests to the antiquity of habitation in the region.[4]

Microlithic and ceramic industries were also developed by savanna pastoralists from at least the 4th millennium BC and were continued by subsequent agricultural communities. In the south, hunting and gathering gave way to subsistence farming around the same time, relying more on the indigenous yam and oil palm than on the cereals important in the North.

The stone axe heads, imported in great quantities from the north and used in opening the forest for agricultural development, were venerated by the Yoruba descendants of neolithic pioneers as “thunderbolts” hurled to earth by the gods.[4]

Iron Smelting furnaces at Taruga dating from around 600 BC provide the oldest evidence of metalworking in Sub-Saharan Africa. Kainji Dam excavations revealed iron-working by the 2nd century BC. The transition from Neolithic times to the Iron Age apparently was achieved indigenously without intermediate bronze production. Others suggest the technology moved west from the Nile Valley, although the Iron Age in the Niger River valley and the forest region appears to predate the introduction of metallurgy in the upper savanna by more than 800 years. The earliest identified iron-using Nigerian culture is that of the Nok culture that thrived between approximately 900 BC and 200 AD on the Jos Plateau in north-eastern Nigeria. Information is lacking from the first millennium AD following the Nok ascendancy, but by the 2nd millennium there was active trade from North Africa through the Sahara to the forest, with the people of the savanna acting as intermediaries in exchanges of various goods.

Hausa Kingdoms

The Hausa Kingdoms were a collection of states started by the Hausa people, situated between the Niger River andLake Chad. Their history is reflected in the Bayajidda legend, which describes the adventures of the Baghdadi hero Bayajidda culmulating in the killing of the snake in the well of Daura and the marriage with the local queen MagajiyaDaurama. while the hero had a child with the queen, Bawo, and another child with the queen’s maid-servant, Karbagari.[5]

Sarki mythology

According to the Bayajidda legend, the Hausa states were founded by the sons of Bayajidda, a prince whose origin differs by tradition. but official canon records him as the person who married the last Kabara of Daura and heralded the end of the matriarchal monarchs that had erstwhile ruled the Hausa people. Contemporary historical scholarship views this legend as an allegory similar to many in that region of Africa that probably referenced a major event, such as a shift in ruling dynasties.

Banza Bakwai

According to the Bayajidda legend, the Banza Bakwai states were founded by the seven sons of Karbagari (“Town-seizer”), the unique son of Bayajidda and the slave-maid, Bagwariya. They are called the Banza Bakwai meaning Bastard or Bogus Seven on account of their ancestress’ slave status.

  • Zamfara (state inhabited by Hausa-speakers)
  • Kebbi (state inhabited by Hausa-speakers)
  • Yauri (also called Yawuri)
  • Gwari (also called Gwariland)
  • Kwararafa (the state of the Jukun people)
  • Nupe (state of the Nupe people)
  • Ilorin(was founded by the Yoruba)

Hausa Bakwai[edit]

The Hausa Kingdoms began as seven states founded according to the Bayajidda legend by the six sons of Bawo, the unique son of the hero and the queen Magajiya Daurama in addition to the hero’s son, Biram or Ibrahim, of an earlier marriage. The states included only kingdoms inhabited by Hausa-speakers:

Since the beginning of Hausa history, the seven states of Hausaland divided up production and labor activities in accordance with their location and natural resources. Kano and Rano were known as the “Chiefs of Indigo.” Cotton grew readily in the great plains of these states, and they became the primary producers of cloth, weaving and dying it before sending it off in caravans to the other states within Hausaland and to extensive regions beyond. Biram was the original seat of government, while Zaria supplied labor and was known as the “Chief of Slaves.” Katsina and Daura were the “Chiefs of the Market,” as their geographical location accorded them direct access to the caravans coming across the desert from the north. Gobir, located in the west, was the “Chief of War” and was mainly responsible for protecting the empire from the invasive Kingdoms of Ghana and Songhai. Islam arrived to Hausaland along the caravan routes. The famous Kano Chronicle records the conversion of Kano’s ruling dynasty by clerics from Mali, demonstrating that the imperial influence of Mali extended far to the east. Acceptance of Islam was gradual and was often nominal in the countryside where folk religion continued to exert a strong influence. Nonetheless, Kano and Katsina, with their famous mosques and schools, came to participate fully in the cultural and intellectual life of the Islamic world. TheFulani began to enter the Hausa country in the 13th century and by the 15th century they were tending cattle, sheep, and goats in Borno as well. The Fulani came from the Senegal River valley, where their ancestors had developed a method of livestock management based on transhumance. Gradually they moved eastward, first into the centers of the Mali and Songhai empires and eventually into Hausaland and Borno. Some Fulbe converted to Islam as early as the 11th century and settled among the Hausa, from whom they became racially indistinguishable. There they constituted a devoutly religious, educated elite who made themselves indispensable to the Hausa kings as government advisers, Islamic judges, and teachers.

Zenith

The Hausa Kingdoms were first mentioned by Ya’qubi in the 9th century[citation needed] and they were by the 15th century vibrant trading centers competing with Kanem-Bornu and the Mali Empire.[6] The primary exports were slaves, leather,gold, cloth, salt, kola nuts, animal hides, and henna. At various moments in their history, the Hausa managed to establish central control over their states, but such unity has always proven short. In the 11th century the conquests initiated by Gijimasu of Kano culminated in the birth of the first united Hausa Nation under Queen Amina, the Sultana of Zazzau but severe rivalries between the states led to periods of domination by major powers like the Songhai, Kanem and the Fulani.

Fall

Despite relatively constant growth, the states were vulnerable to aggression and, although the vast majority of its inhabitants were Muslim by the 16th century, they were attacked by Fulani jihadists from 1804 to 1808. In 1808 the Hausa Nation was finally conquered by Usuman dan Fodio and incorporated into the Hausa-Fulani Sokoto Caliphate

Yoruba

Historically the Yoruba people have been the dominant group on the west bank of the Niger. Their nearest linguistic relatives are the Igala who live on the opposite side of the Niger’s divergence from the Benue, and from whom they are believed to have split about 2,000 years ago. The Yoruba were organized in mostly patrilineal groups that occupied village communities and subsisted on agriculture. From approximately the 8th century, adjacent village compounds called ile coalesced into numerous territorial city-states in which clan loyalties became subordinate to dynastic chieftains. Urbanization was accompanied by high levels of artistic achievement, particularly in terracotta and ivory sculpture and in the sophisticated metal casting produced at Ife.

The Yoruba paid tribute to a pantheon composed of an impersonal Supreme Deity, Olorun. The Olorun is now called God in the Yoruba language. There are 400 lesser deities who perform various tasks. According to the Yoruba,Oduduwa is regarded as both the creator of the earth and the ancestor of the Yoruba kings. According to one of the various myths about him, he founded Ife and dispatched his sons and daughters to establish similar kingdoms in other parts of what is today known as Yorubaland. The Yorubaland now consists of different tribes from different states which are located in the Southwestern part of the country, states like Oyo State, Ondo State, Ekiti State, Ogun State, among others.

Igbo states

Nri Kingdom

The city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture.[8] Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umueri clan, who trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure, Eri.[9]Eri’s origins are unclear, though he has been described as a “sky being” sent byChukwu (God).[9][10] He has been characterized as having first given societal order to the people of Anambra.[10]

Archaeological evidence suggests that Nri hegemony in Igboland may go back as far as the 9th century,[11] and royal burials have been unearthed dating to at least the 10th century. Eri, the god-like founder of Nri, is believed to have settled the region around 948 with other related Igbo cultures following after in the 13th century.[12] The first Eze Nri (King of Nri), Ìfikuánim, followed directly after him. According to Igbo oral tradition, his reign started in 1043.[13] At least one historian puts Ìfikuánim’s reign much later, around 1225.[14]

Each king traces his origin back to the founding ancestor, Eri. Each king is a ritual reproduction of Eri. The

initiation rite of a new king shows that the ritual process of becoming Ezenri (Nri priest-king) follows closely the path traced by the hero in establishing the Nri kingdom.

— E. Elochukwu Uzukwu[10]

Nri and Aguleri and part of the Umueri clan, a cluster of Igbo village groups which traces its origins to a sky being called Eri, and, significantly, includes (from the viewpoint of its Igbo members) the neighbouring kingdom of Igala.

— Elizabeth Allo Isichei[15]

The Kingdom of Nri was a religio-polity, a sort of theocratic state, that developed in the central heartland of the Igbo region.[12] The Nri had a taboo symbolic code with six types. These included human (such as the birth of twins), animal (such as killing or eating of pythons),[16] object, temporal, behavioral, speech and place taboos.[17] The rules regarding these taboos were used to educate and govern Nri’s subjects. This meant that, while certain Igbo may have lived under different formal administration, all followers of the Igbo religion had to abide by the rules of the faith and obey its representative on earth, the Eze Nri.[16][17]

Decline of Nri kingdom[edit]

With the decline of Nri kingdom in the 15th to 17th centuries, several states once under their influence, became powerful economic oracular oligarchies and large commercial states that dominated Igboland. The neighboring Awkacity-state rose in power as a result of their powerful Agbala oracle and metalworking expertise. The Onitsha Kingdom, which was originally inhabited by Igbos from east of the Niger, was founded in the 16th century by migrants fromAnioma (Western Igboland). Later groups like the Igala traders from the hinterland settled in Onitsha in the 18th century. Western Igbo kingdoms like Aboh, dominated trade in the lower Niger area from the 17th century until European penetration. The Umunoha state in the Owerri area used the Igwe ka Ala oracle at their advantage. However, the Cross River Igbo state like the Aro had the greatest influence in Igboland and adjacent areas after the decline of Nri.

The Arochukwu kingdom emerged after the Aro-Ibibio Wars from 1630 to 1720, and went on to form the Aro Confederacy which economically dominated Eastern Nigerian hinterland. The source of the Aro Confederacy’s economic dominance was based on the judicial oracle of Ibini Ukpabi (“Long Juju“) and their military forces which included powerful allies such as Ohafia, Abam, Ezza, and other related neighboring states. The Abiriba and Aro are Brothers whose migration is traced to Ekpa Kingdom in East of Cross River; their exact take of location was at Ekpa (Mkpa) east of the Cross river. They crossed the river to Urupkam (Usukpam) west of the Cross river and founded two settlements: Ena Uda and Ena Ofia in present-day Erai. Aro and Abiriba cooperated to become a powerful economic force.

Igbo gods, like those of the Yoruba, were numerous, but their relationship to one another and human beings was essentially egalitarian, reflecting Igbo society as a whole. A number of oracles and local cults attracted devotees while the central deity, the earth mother and fertility figure Ala, was venerated at shrines throughout Igboland.

The weakness of a popular theory that Igbos were stateless rests on the paucity of historical evidence of pre-colonial Igbo society. There is a huge gap between the archaeological finds of Igbo Ukwu, which reveal a rich material culture in the heart of the Igbo region in the 8th century, and the oral traditions of the 20th century. Benin exercised considerable influence on the western Igbo, who adopted many of the political structures familiar to the Yoruba-Benin region, but Asaba and its immediate neighbors, such as Ibusa, Ogwashi-Ukwu, Okpanam, Issele-Azagba and Issele-Ukwu, were much closer to the Kingdom of Nri. Ofega was the queen for the Onitsha Igbo.Igbo imabana.